Using the framework of the historical analysis presented to the Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, drug prices relative to income in the United States are compared to other Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries to improve treatment access and affordability. Countries were selected based on drug price and income data availability and inclusion in the OECD. 40 drugs, 20 brand name and 20 generic, were selected based on revenue sales and prescription volume in 2018. Domestic pricing data included list price, measured by Average Wholesale Price (AWP), and retail price available on GoodRx.com. International drug price data was sourced from publicly available databases on individual country websites. The first analysis illustrates the percentage of household disposable income needed to cover a year supply of a select product. The second analysis illustrates country-specific difference in drug affordability. The last analysis examines the percent of resources an average family, about three persons, would spend on medication in the United Sates if they were a member of different income groups.
25 children ranging in age from 6 to 10 years participated in this bilateral split-mouth study evaluating two dental sealants for retention and secondary caries development. Data were collected comparing resin based and glass ionomer based sealants with and without tooth preparation at 6-month intervals over a 2 year period. Dataset includes demographic and clinical measures and sealant performance evaluation and comparison at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months.
A 20 question survey was administered to 422 participants to gather data on factors influencing pharmacogenomics (PGx). The surveying period was from April to May 2019. Participants included physicians, pharmacists, and researchers. The survey link online was conducted via WeChat. Data collection from the surveys was conducted via popular professional survey platform "Wenjuanxing."
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets standards for US graduate medical education (residency and fellowship) programs and the institutions that sponsor them, and renders accreditation decisions based on compliance with these standards. Residents and fellows provide regular feedback to the ACGME about their programs, offering an inside view that helps the organization to improve the overall quality of accredited programs. In turn, ACGME produces anonymized, aggregated datasets with descriptive statistics on said resident and fellow feedback. The Ophthalmology reports include primary surgeon and surgical assistant operation data for each academic year from 2009-10 to present.
Randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating new vaccines. To assess its efficacy and safety, the manufacturer of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine conducted multiple clinical trials involving approximately 30,000 volunteers. The trials of the qHPV vaccine are reported as ‘placebo-controlled.’ However, participants in the ‘placebo’ arms received an injection-containing amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate (AAHS), a proprietary adjuvant. AAHS is used in the qHPV vaccine to boost immune response, but the rationale for adding it to the ‘placebo’ is not reported in publications of these trials and is contrary to the advice of the public health bodies and regulators. Standard recommendations for control recipients in trials testing an unlicensed, experimental vaccine include using either an inert substance or an approved efficacious vaccine. However, several pivotal trial publications incompletely reported important methodological details and inaccurately described the formulation that the control arms received. Under the Restoring Invisible and Abandoned Trials Initiative (RIAT), the primary objective of this study was to characterize the reporting of the methodology with respect to the rationale for the choice of standalone aluminum-containing adjuvanted controls. Clinical study reports (CSRs) from five randomized controlled trials described as placebo-controlled were obtained from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Content and rationale for the choice of control used in each trial was extracted across six data sources: trial publications, register records, CSR synopses, CSR main bodies, protocols and informed consent forms. For each source within each trial, the following was recorded: (1) the phrases used to describe the comparator to qHPV vaccine; (2) the rationale for using aluminum-containing adjuvant as a control, if present and (3) all listed contents (ingredients) of formulation received by intervention and control arms. This dataset includes data extraction sheets and RIAT protocol documentation publicly accessible via the Open Science Framework with the CSRs available upon request.
The Amish Research Group of the University of Maryland School of Medicine has been studying the Old Order Amish population in Lancaster County, PA, since 1993. This database currently consists of health-related data on over 7,000 adults resulting from studies ranging from population and basic science to clinical and translational research. Areas of investigation include: Cardiovascular Risk, Diabetes, Bone Health, Blood Pressure, Vascular Imaging, Aging, Breast Tissue Density, Platelet Aggregation, Microbiome, Wellness, and Brain Imaging. Extensive genetic data (genotyping and sequencing) is also available.
Murine typhus is a febrile disease caused by the bacterium, Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi), and transmitted via infected fleas. This study investigated midgut responses of infected versus uninfected cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) by constructing cDNA libraries and examining transcript levels. Select C. felis serine proteases, GTPases and defense response genes were compared to identify differences in gene expression between the two states of infection. A total of 1152 transcripts from both libraries were sequenced, generating 906 high quality sequences, 472 from the uninfected and 434 from the infected midgut library.
Data and figures are provided on the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, on the gut microbiome and metabolome in a rat model to better understand the effect of this drug on women during gestation and lactation. Throughout pregnancy and lactation, female rats received the SSRI fluoxetine or vehicle. High resolution 16S ribosomal RNA marker gene sequencing and targeted metabolic analysis were used to assess the fecal microbiome and metabolic availability, respectively.
Data from Medicaid fee-for-service and managed care claims from one Mid-Atlantic state were analyzed for this cross-sectional study. The dataset consists of a total of 16,969 youths under the age of 20 with a mental health diagnosis and a pharmacy claim for antipsychotic medication in 2003. Data for each individual includes demographic, Medicaid program category (ie, foster care, disabled), psychiatric diagnostic codes, and psychotropic medications by major therapeutic class.
This study examined randomized trials of statins to investigate the reporting of muscle-related adverse events (MRAEs). The study highlights the importance of critical appraisal of trial design and data collection methods from clinical study reports. Internal company trial documents were requested from the European Medicines Agency and Health Canada for all clinical trials of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, and simvastatin. 25 of the 85 trails obtained and screened for documents met the inclusion criteria for assessment.